Valmiki National Park – complete detail – updated. Dominant flora and fauna of Valmiki National Park. Geography of Valmiki National Park. How to reach Valmiki National Park. In past, the forest area of the Valmiki was owned by the Bettiah Raj and Ramanagar Raj until the early 1950s. The forests were managed for timber production.
Valmiki National Park is a beautiful place, located in West Champaran district of the state of Bihar. Total area of the park is about 335.65 Km2. Valmiki National Park was established in the year 1990. The Valmiki National park is the home to a wide variety of flora and fauna. The Valmiki National park is the home to a wide variety of flora and fauna.
There is a healthy diversity of animals along with tigers in the tiger reserve like leopards, fishing cats, deers, black bucks, wolves, deer, sloth bears, Nilgai, Cheetal, One horned Rhinoceros, Indian Bison, hyenas, jungle cats, rhesus monkey etc. Jungle Safaris is the best way to spot several species of wildlife animals in the park. Camera trapping is being used extensively in the park…………..
National park is an area which is strictly reserved for the betterment of the wildlife & biodiversity, and where activities like developmental, forestry, poaching, hunting and grazing on cultivation are not permitted. Their boundaries are well marked and circumscribed.
Valmiki National Park
Valmiki National Park is a beautiful place, located in West Champaran district of the state of Bihar. The park is situated in the Gangetic Plains bio-geographic zone of the country, the forest has combination of bhabar and terai tracts.
It was declared a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1978. Total area of the Sanctuary is about 545.15 Km2. Valmiki National Park was established in the year 1990. Total area of the park is about 335.65 Km2.
Valmiki Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park is the 18th Tiger Reserve of the country. The Valmiki Tiger Reserve comprises of the Valmiki National Park and the Valmiki Wild Sanctuary.
The national park gets its name from Valmiki Nagar, a small town located within the forest area. Due to dense forest cover in the region, the only entrance to the tiger reserve is through the town of Valmiki Nagar. The tiger reserve borders the Chitwan National Park across the border in Nepal.
There are two rivers that flow through the park – Gandak and Masan River. The Gandak River with the Himalayan range in the distance offers a great view and is a haven for photographers.
The Valmiki National park is the home to a wide variety of flora and fauna. The park consists of moist Sal bearing forests, dry sale bearing forests, moist mixed deciduous forests without Sal, cane and tropical seasonal swamp forests containing reed beds and wet grasslands.
There is a healthy diversity of animals along with tigers in the tiger reserve like leopards, fishing cats, deers, black bucks, wolves, deer, sloth bears, Nilgai, Cheetal, One horned Rhinoceros, Indian Bison, hyenas, jungle cats, rhesus monkey etc.
The main attraction of the park is Bengal tiger. The one – horned rhinoceros and Indian bison often migrate from Chitwan to Valmikinagar.
Jungle Safaris is the best way to spot several species of wildlife animals in the park. Camera trapping is being used extensively in the park.
The Valmiki protected areas in India and Chitwan National Park and Parsa Wildlife Reserve in Nepal has been assessed as Level–1 Tiger Conservation Unit (TCU) by US–WWF due to adequate core areas and low poaching pressure.
In past, the forest area of the Valmiki was owned by the Bettiah Raj and Ramanagar Raj until the early 1950s. The forests were managed for timber production.
The state government took over the management of Ramnagar Raj forests in 1950 and the Bettiah Raj forests in 1953 and 1954 under the Bihar Private Protected Forests Act (1947).
In 1974, the entire forests were handed over to the Bihar State Forest Development Corporation on lease, which managed the forests with commercial objectives. It was declared a Wildlife Sanctuary in 1978. Total area of the Sanctuary is about 545.15 Km2.
Valmiki National Park was established in the year 1990. Total area of the park is about 335.65 Km2. The forests were taken back from the State Forest Development Corporation in 1994 and Valmiki Tiger Reserve was constituted as 18th reserve under Project Tiger of Government of India.
The name of the district West Champaran derives from two words, Champa and Aranya, meaning forest of Champa trees. Valmiki Ashram near Valmiki Nagar holds great religious importance for Hindus. According to popular belief, it was the ashram of sage Valmiki and wrote the Ramayana here.
The Valmiki National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary lie in the north-western most West Champaran district of Bihar. The Park & Sanctuary is situated in the Gangetic Plains bio-geographic zone of the country, the forest has combination of bhabar and terai tracts.
The Valmiki National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary are parts of a large tiger conservation landscape – the Royal Chitwan Tiger Conservation landscape.
In north, the protected areas are bordered by Nepal while the Indian state Uttar Pradesh bounds the Wildlife Sanctuary from western side.
The landscape of park encompasses foothills ranges of Himalayan Siwaliks with mosaic of the cliffs, ridges, gorges, hills, streams and valleys; dense forests, open woodlands, grasslands, swamps and riverine fringe.
Older alluvium with sandy soil with variegated clay and loose boulder deposits and artesian flows, lateritic formations on higher contours and newer Alluvium on southern parts with reissuing springs akin to artesian flows.
River Gandak forms the western boundary of Valmiki wildlife sanctuary. It enters in India at Valmikinagar, where two rivulets Sonha and Pachnad joins it, forming a holy confluence ‘Triveni’. The river is called ‘Narayani’ in Nepal. Harha – Masan River system originates from the Valmiki Forests and forms Burhi Gandak River down south.
All these rivers with their precursor and tributaries namely Rohua, Kotrahia, Manor, Bhapsa, Koshil, Singha, Dhonghi, Ganguli, Dhoram are full of youth and verve.
According to Champion and Seth classification, the Valmiki WLS and NP are comprised of seven types of forests –
- Bhabar – Dun Sal Forest
- Dry Siwalik Sal Forest
- West Gangetic Moist Mixed Deciduous Forest
- Khair – Sissoo Forest
- Cane Brakes
- Eastern Wet Alluvial Grassland
- Barringtonia Swamp Forest
Due to diverse topographical and edaphic factors the Reserve harbors varied vegetation types. The Botanical Survey of India has categorized seven vegetation types within the limits of the sanctuary and the national park:
- Moist mixed deciduous
- Open-Land Vegetation
- Sub-mountainous semi-evergreen formation
- Freshwater swamps
- Riparian fringes
- Alluvial grasslands and high hill savannah
Average rainfall – 1450 to 2100 mm
Temperature: Maximum – 37o C
Minimum – 3o C
Standing at an altitude of 88 mm to 125 mm above the Mean Sea Level.
It is situated between 83˚-50’ & 84˚-10’ E longitude and between 27˚-10’ & 27˚-03’ N latitude.
Shorea robusta, Mallotus phillipensis, Strebulus asper, Terminalia tomentosa, Terminalia belerica, Adina cordifolia, Dalbergia latifolia, Mitragyna parviflora, Ehretia laevis, Angeissus latifolia, Tectona grandis, Salmalia malabarica, Dalbergia sissoo, Acacia catechu, Syzygium cumini, Dillenia pentagyna, Ficus glomerata, Calamus tenuis, Colebrookea oppositifolia, Murraya koenigii, Bridelia retusa, Indigofera pulchella, Leea asiatica, Imperata cylindrica, Saccharum spontaneum, Eulaliopsis binata, Vetiveria zizanoides, Capillipedum assimile, Chrysopogon aciculatus, Phragmites karka, Emblica officials, Piper longum, Safed Musli etc.
Mammals – Tiger, Rhinoceros, Black bear, Leopard, Wild dog, wild buffalo, wild boar, hyena, Leopard cat, Wild cat, fishing cat, Languor, monkey, Barking deer, Spotted deer, Hog deer, Blue bull, Flying squirrel etc.
One-horned rhinoceros and Indian bison often migrate from Chitwan to Valmikinagar.
Birds – Nepal kaleej pheasant, Three-toed quail, Flycatcher, Grey shrike, Green willow warbler, Tree pipit, White eye, Green barbet, Waders, Ibises, Storks, Pitta, Plovers, Snipes, Pied hornbill, Emerald dove, Green pigeons, Purple wood pigeons etc.
Reptiles – Python, Cobra, King cobra, Krait, Banded krait, Sand boa, Crocodiles, Gharial, monitor lizard etc.
Butterflies – Common Mormon, Great Mormon, Glassy tiger, Great eggfly, Club beak, Grey pansy, Lime butterfly, Common crow etc.
The ZSI has recorded 10 species of amphibians, 27 species of reptiles and 75 species of insects.
Madanpur Devi Asthan temple
Dense Sal forests of Raghia Range
The dense and deep pockets of forest in the oblong section of Someshwar Block from Gabardhana to Dhumatanr – Jasauli.
The wetlands, swamps and mixed forests of riparian tract of Gandak River in the Madanpur Range.
Barrage across river Gandak at Valmikinagar at Indo-Nepal border.
The Bhitiharawa Ashram of Mahatma Gandhi near Gaunaha in the eastern end.
The Ashokan Pillar (polished stone) and Baudh Stupas at Lauriya and Nandangarh.
Best Time to Visit
The best time of the year to visit the Valmiki National Park is between the months of November to March.
How to Reach
By Air – Nearest airport is Patna airport, about 275 Km from the Valmiki National Park. Patna airport is well connected by road and rail network to Valmiki National Park. Other nearest airports are Kolkata and Gorakhpur.
By Rail – Nearest railway station is Valmiki Nagar railway station. Valmiki Nagar railway station is well connected by road to Valmiki National Park.
The park is situated on Gorakhpur–Muzaffarpur (via Narkatiganj) rail route. Direct train are available from major cities of the Country to reach the national park.
By Road – Valmiki National Park is well connected to Major Cities and Places by road network. There are a number of government and privately operated vehicles that go to Valmiki National Park at frequent intervals.
Distance from Major places
Patna – about 275 Km
Muzaffarpur – about 200 Km
Gorakhpur – about 125 Km
Bettiah – about 80 Km
There is accommodation available at the Valmiki National Park. There are forest rest houses located in the different places throughout the park. Tourists are required to send request for accommodation in advance.
Valmiki Tiger Reserve, Champaran Forest Circle
District-West Chaparan, Bihar Ph. 06254-235331(O) 06254-232909(R) Fax. 235331 234181
Chief Wildlife Warden
4th Floor, Technology Bhawan
Vishvaishvaraiya Complex, Bailey Road, Patna (Bihar) Phone: 0612 – 2545366
Valmiki Tiger Project (VTP)
W. Champaran, Bettiah – 845438 (Bihar)
Telefax: 06254-245331 (O); Phone: 9431809401
Divisional Forest Officer
Valmiki Tiger Project – Division I
West Champaran, Bettiah – 845438 (Bihar)
Phone: 06254-232017 (O); 9431809402(M)
Divisional Forest Officer
Valmiki Tiger Project – Division II
West Champaran, Bettiah – 845438 (Bihar)
Phone: 06254-240367 (O); 9431809403(M)