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State bird of Punjab (Northern goshawk) complete detail – updated

State bird of Punjab (Northern goshawk) complete detail – updated. Description of State bird of Punjab. Name of the State bird of Punjab is Northern goshawk. Habit and habitat of Northern goshawk. They prefer wooded areas, open woods, deciduous, coniferous and mixed forests. 
Size of adult male Northern goshawk is between 45 to 60 cm and the length of female is between is between 55 to 70 cm. The plumage of adult is brownish-grey to slaty grey above, with a black or dark brown cap on the head. Their backs, the tops of their wings, and their heads are usually dark brown with black appearance.
Underparts are light grey or white in color with fine fine horizontal barring on the breast, and small, black, vertical streaks on the throat. They have short, robust wings that enable rapid acceleration, and a long………..
The nesting and breeding season is between March and June. The nest is located in an old growth forest, near the trunk of a medium to large tree and near openings in the forest such as roads, swamps, and meadows. Nest is made of dead twigs, and lined with leafy green twigs or bunches of conifer needles and pieces of bark.
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Click here to view State wise list of Indian state birds (symbols) – updated.

Distinctive Identification

Northern goshawk is classified as Least Concern (LC) by the IUCN. Size of adult male Northern goshawk is between 45 to 60 cm and the length of female is between is between 55 to 70 cm. The weight of adult male is between 550 to 1150 g, and the weight of female is between 600 to 1400 g.

Males have a wingspan of 85 to 105 cm and the wingspan of female is between 100 to 125 cm. The length of tail is between 18 to 28 cm.

The plumage of adult is brownish-grey to slaty grey above, with a black or dark brown cap on the head. Their backs, the tops of their wings, and their heads are usually dark brown with black appearance.

Underparts are light grey or white in color with fine horizontal barring on the breast, and small, black, vertical streaks on the throat.

They have short, robust wings that enable rapid acceleration, and a long tail, which provides excellent maneuverability while flying between trees. The tail is light gray or brown in color with some dark bands.

The eye color of adult is red to reddish-orange or yellowish brown, in juveniles eye color is bright yellow. They have a white or light grey grouping of feathers above the eye.

Legs are short, strong and yellowish in color. The nails are long, slightly curved and strong. The bill is short, sharp, strong, stout, and dark greyish or black in color. Mouth of Northern goshawk dark grayish or light brown in color with yellow patch appearance.

Females have browner upper parts and coarser markings on the breast. Females are significantly larger than males.

Juvenile is brown above and barred brown or pale buff to whitish below, with heavy streaking. They has barred tail, with dark brown or black barring.

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Classification

Common Name – Northern goshawk

Zoological Name – Accipiter gentilis

Kingdom – Animalia

Phylum – Chordata

Class – Aves

Order – Accipitriformes

Family – Accipitridae

Genus – Accipiter

Conservational Status – Classified as Least Concern (LC) by the IUCN.

Distribution

Northern goshawk has an extremely large range. They found in North America, Europe and northern Asia. They also found in western Canada, south to Tennessee and southern Arizona in the U.S.A., and Jalisco in western Mexico, northern Indochina, central Europe, central Asia and Himalayas.

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Click here to view State wise list of Indian state animals (symbols) – updated

Habit and habitat

They prefer wooded areas, open woods, deciduous, coniferous and mixed forests. In the nesting and breeding season, they prefer mature forests consisting of a combination of old, tall trees with intermediate canopy coverage and small open areas within the forest for foraging.

They can be found at almost any altitude, but recently are typically found at high elevations. In colder months, they move down to warmer forests with lower elevations.

They are especially vocal during courtship and nesting. Both sexes make equally varied sounds, however, the female’s sounds are deeper and louder, while male goshawks tend to have higher and less powerful voices.

They have varied sounds like “ki-ki-ki-ki”, “kak-kak-kak”.

They are generally found alone, or in pairs. They typically maintain a life-long pair bond.

Northern goshawk is a carnivores bird and known as a powerful hunter. They feed on various birds, small mammals, invertebrates, and reptiles, often utilizing a combination of speed and obstructing cover to ambush birds and mammals.

They also make survey flights along forest edges and over clearings. Once prey is spotted, then they swoops down, sometimes crashing through vegetation, before driving its talons into its victim and killing it with a kneading motion.

The flight is a characteristic “flap flap, glide”, and they are capable of considerable, sustained, horizontal speed of 50 to 60 km/hr in pursuit of prey.

The nesting and breeding season is between March and June. The nest is located in an old growth forest, near the trunk of a medium to large tree and near openings in the forest such as roads, swamps, and meadows.

When trying to find a mate, female goshawks will attract males in the area by performing “sky dances” and calling, or by perching in the nesting area and calling.

Nest is made of dead twigs, and lined with leafy green twigs or bunches of conifer needles and pieces of bark.

Eggs 2 to 4, rough textured and bluish-white. Incubation of the eggs is mostly done by the female, but the male will sometimes take her place to allow her to hunt and eat. The incubation period is between 30 to 38 days.

When they reach 36 to 42 days old, they begin to move to branches close to the nest. Juvenile fledglings may be fed by their parents until they are about 70 days old. Most goshawks are completely independent by the time they are 3 to 3.5 months old. The average Lifespan Northern goshawk of 10 to 12 years.

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