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State animal of Punjab (Blackbuck) complete detail – updated

State animal of Punjab (Blackbuck) complete detail – updated. Description of state animal of Punjab. Name of the state animal of Punjab is Blackbuck . Habit and habitat of Blackbuck. Blackbuck live on open woodlands and semi-desert areas, but also enjoy areas with thorn or dry deciduous forest. 
The weight of adult male is between 20 to 50 kg and weight of female is between 20 to 35 kg. Blackbucks are slender with a head-to-body length of about 110 cm. Adult male Black Buck have black and white fur. Upper part of the body is black, while the under part and a ring around the eyes is white in color.
The males are born lighter in color, but turns darker at maturity. The color of the female is yellowish-brown on the head and along the back. Both sexes are white on the underside and insides of the legs. Old bucks are blackish brown on the back, the sides, and the front of the neck. They become almost black with age; only the nape remains brownish rufous, and the pale lateral band disappears. Blackbuck have white eye rings, chin patch, chest, belly, and inner legs. In the non-breeding season, after the pring molt, adult males may lighten considerably and retain their darkest coloration only on the face and legs…………..
Mating may occur throughout the year, the blackbuck has reproductive peaks from March to April, and August to October. During this time, the males occupy territories which can vary both in size and their proximity to the neighboring territory.
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Click here to view State wise list of Indian state birds (symbols) – updated.

Classification

Common Name – Black Buck

Local Name – Kala Hiran

Zoological Name – Antilope cervicapra

Kingdom – Animalia

Phylum – Chordata

Class – Mammalia

Order – Artiodactyla

Family – Bovidae

Genus – Antilope

Conservational Status – Schedule – I (Part I), according to wildlife (Protection) act, 1972 and classified as Near Threatened (NT) by the IUCN.

Distinctive Identification

Black Buck has been classified as Near Threatened by the IUCN. The weight of adult male is between 20 to 50 kg and weight of female is between 20 to 35 kg. Blackbucks are slender with a head-to-body length of about 110 cm. They are about 70 to 80 cm high at the shoulder.

Adult male Black Buck have black and white fur. Upper part of the body is black, while the under part and a ring around the eyes is white in color. The males are born lighter in color, but turns darker at maturity. The color of the female is yellowish-brown on the head and along the back. Both sexes are white on the underside and insides of the legs.

Old bucks are blackish brown on the back, the sides, and the front of the neck. They become almost black with age; only the nape remains brownish rufous, and the pale lateral band disappears. Blackbuck have white eye rings, chin patch, chest, belly, and inner legs. In the non-breeding season, after the spring molt, adult males may lighten considerably and retain their darkest coloration only on the face and legs.

One of the blackbuck’s most striking features is the pair of long, spiraling horns possessed by the male, which are marked with rings and sweep backwards from the head in a v-shaped arrangement. Measured from base to tip, horns reach up to 75 cm in length, although Texas blackbuck rarely have horns exceeding 58 cm. The females are usually hornless.

The tail is short and compressed. Both sexes are white on the belly, around the eyes, and on the inside of the legs.

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Distribution

The Blackbuck formerly occurred across almost the whole of the Indian subcontinent. Blackbuck are native to India, Pakistan and Nepal where they were widespread in plains and open woodlands, wet coastal areas, western deserts, and northern mountains limited their distribution.

Blackbucks ranged in open plains from the base of the Himalayas to the area of Cape Comoran, and from the Punjab to Lower Assam. They were abundant in the North-Western Provinces, Rajputana, parts of the Deccan, and on the plains near the coast of Orissa and Lower Bengal. Herds occasionally comprised several thousand animals of both sexes and all ages.

Blackbuck population is confined to areas in Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Karnataka, with a few small pockets in Central India. 

Habit and habitat

Blackbucks are herbivorous. They prefer eating grasses, fruits, pods, flowers, shrubs and herbs but they have occasionally been observed browsing on acacia trees. Blackbuck prefer to graze on short to mid-length grasses but also browse on common brush species.

Blackbuck live on open woodlands and semi-desert areas, but also enjoy areas with thorn or dry deciduous forest. They like to stay near areas where grassland and open woodland is available. They avoid forested areas. They require water every day and may move long distances in search of water and Forage in summer.

The blackbuck typically lives in herds of around 2 to 50 individuals (Sometime more than 50). They are very fast. Speeds of more than 75 km/h have been recorded.

The blackbuck is typically active throughout the day during the cooler months, but mainly in the morning and late afternoon when temperatures are high.

Adult males are highly territorial and defend areas ranging from 1.5 to 15 ha in size against trespass by other males. Female groups may graze through male territories, and breeding activity may take place at such times, but other males are excluded. Young males, and bucks without territories, form their own all male groups. At physical maturity (2-3 years of age) young bucks may split from the all-male group to establish or win their own territory.

Click here to view State wise list of Indian state animals (symbols) – updated

Male Black Buck attain sexual maturity in 3 years and the female black buck in approximately 2 years.

Mating may occur throughout the year, the blackbuck has reproductive peaks from March to April, and August to October. During this time, the males occupy territories which can vary both in size and their proximity to the neighboring territory. Females attain sexual maturity much faster than the females. Males hold their nose up and place their horns parallel to their back, to attract the females during the mating season.

The length of gestation is about 6 months and within a month of parturition the female may breed again. Females can give birth twice in the 14 months to one or two young ones at a time. Young ones remain with their mother up to the age of one year. Males remains in sexual excitement throughout the year. The lifespan is up to 18 years.

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