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State animal of Assam – complete detail – updated

State animal of Assam – complete detail – updated. What is the name of state animal of Assam. State animal of Assam – One horned rhinoceros. Description of One horned rhinoceros. Classification of rhinoceros. The preferred habitat of an Indian Rhinoceros is alluvial flood plains, grasslands, but has also been known to occur in adjacent swamps and forests.
Habit and habitat of One horned rhinoceros. Indian Rhinoceros is an excellent swimmer. They makes a wide variety of vocalizations. Size of male adult rhinoceros is between 365 cm to 385 cm, with a shoulder height of 165 cm to 186 cm and the size of female adult rhinoceros is between 300 cm to 350 cm. 
The skin of one horned rhinoceros is divided in to great shields by heavy folds before and behind the shoulders and in front of the thighs. The fold in front of the shoulders is not continued right across the back, a distinctive character of this rhinoceros. On the flanks, shoulders, and hindquarters, the skin is studded with masses of rounded tubercles…………….
Breeding takes place at all times of the year. The female Indian rhinoceros reaches sexual maturity between 4 to 6 years old, and the male reaches sexual maturity between 6 to 10 years old. Breeding takes place at all times of the year.
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Click here to view State wise list of Indian state animals (symbols) – updated

Distinctive Identification

One horned rhinoceros is a Schedule – I animal, according to wildlife (Protection) act, 1972 and classified as Vulnerable (VU) by the IUCN.

Size of male adult rhinoceros is between 365 cm to 385 cm, with a shoulder height of 165 cm to 186 cm and the size of female adult rhinoceros is between 300 cm to 350 cm, with a shoulder height of 145–175 cm.

The weight of adult male is between 2000 kg to 3000 kg and the weight of adult female is between 1500 kg to 2200 kg and the length of tail is between 70 cm to 105 cm.

Skin of the Rhinoceros unicornis is grey or greyish-brown and has many loose folds as well as lumps, known as tubercles, giving this species an armor-plated appearance.

The skin of one horned rhinoceros is divided in to great shields by heavy folds before and behind the shoulders and in front of the thighs. The fold in front of the shoulders is not continued right across the back, a distinctive character of this rhinoceros.

On the flanks, shoulders, and hindquarters, the skin is studded with masses of rounded tubercles.

Rhinoceros unicornis (both sexes) has one horn which is composed by keratin, and uses for defence, intimidation, digging up roots and breaking branches during feeding. Horn reaches a length of about 20 cm to 30 cm. Horn is absent on newborn young.

Males have heavy skull, with a basal length above 55 cm to 65 cm, and an occiput above 18 cm to 20 cm.

They have sharp hearing and a keen sense of smell. They may find one another by following the trail of scent each enormous animal leaves behind it on the landscape.

Ears of the one horned rhinoceros possess a relatively wide rotational range to detect sounds and an excellent sense of smell to readily alert them to the presence of predators.

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One horned rhinoceros has very little body hair, aside from eyelashes, ear fringes and tail brush. Males have huge neck folds.

One horned rhinoceros has relatively poor eyesight. Upper legs and shoulders are covered in wart-like bumps.

Male one horned rhinoceros has large, sharp incisors that may be used in fights over females during the breeding season. Males are larger than females.

Classification

Common Name – One horned rhinoceros / Indian rhinoceros

Local Name – Gainda

Zoological Name – Rhinoceros unicornis

Kingdom – Animalia

Phylum – Chordata

Class – Mammalia

Order – Perissodactyla

Family – Rhinocerotidae

Genus – Rhinoceros

Conservational Status – Schedule – I, according to wildlife (Protection) act, 1972 and classified as Vulnerable (VU) by the IUCN.

Distribution

One-horned rhinos once ranged across the entire northern part of the Indian Subcontinent, along the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra river basins from Pakistan to the Indian- Burmese border, including Bangladesh and the Southern parts of Nepal and Bhutan.

They found in some parts of Nepal and West Bengal in the north, the Dooars, and Assam. In Nepal it is found only in the country to the east of Gandak River known as Chitawan, in Assam in isolated areas of the plains.

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Habit and habitat

The preferred habitat of an Indian Rhinoceros is alluvial flood plains, grasslands, but has also been known to occur in adjacent swamps and forests.

They like tall grasslands along the foothills of the Himalayas. Indian Rhinoceros also found in wood jungle up ravines and low hills.

Indian rhinos are mostly solitary animals, adult males are generally solitary, except for mating and fighting. Adult females are largely solitary when they are without calves.

Indian Rhinoceros is an excellent swimmer. They can run at speeds of 40 to 55 km/hr for short periods of time.

Indian Rhinoceros is a herbivores animal. They feed on grass, fruit, leaves, branches, aquatic plants, and cultivated crops. Tall reedy grasses are preferred to short species. They feed in the mornings and evenings.

There are loosely defined territories in males which are not well defended, and often these territories overlap. Occasionally rhino interactions are aggressive. Dominant males tolerate males passing through their territories except when they are in mating season, when dangerous fights break out.

They makes a wide variety of vocalizations. At least 10 distinct vocalizations have been identified, snorting, honking, bleating, roaring, squeak-panting, moo-grunting, shrieking, groaning, rumbling and humphing.

Click here to view State wise list of Indian state birds (symbols) – updated.

The female Indian rhinoceros reaches sexual maturity between 4 to 6 years old, and the male reaches sexual maturity between 6 to 10 years old.

Breeding takes place at all times of the year. The period of gestation is about 16 months and birth interval ranges from 34–51 months. Mothers will stay close to their calves for up to 4 or 5 years after their birth. Average lifespan of Indian Rhinoceros is between 35 to 45 years.

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