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Rana tigrina (Hoplobatrachus tigerinus) complete detail

Rana tigrina (Hoplobatrachus tigerinus) complete detail – updated. Description of Rana tigrina (Hoplobatrachus tigerinus). Classification of Rana tigrina (Hoplobatrachus tigerinus). Habit and habitat of Rana tigrina (Hoplobatrachus tigerinus). They prefer freshwater wetlands and aquatic habitats. Generally they avoid coastal and forest areas.
Rana tigrina is a beautiful frog. It is the largest frog in India. Size of Rana tigrina is between 5 to 17 cm. The weight of mature Rana tigrina is between 25 to 500 g. They are found in various colors ranging from yellow to olive green or gray, with dark irregular markings. 
They has a fine yellow or dirty white line along upper surface of thigh, another on the inner side of calf. Ventrum white, sometimes feeble pigmentation on throat. A white broad band runs along the side separating the dark color pattern of the back from the plain white belly. They have a long and pointed snout and long, muscular hind limbs. They have moderate head. Their toes are nearly entirely webbed. The eardrum is large. Nostril a little nearer to the end of the mouth than to the eye; inter-orbital space narrower than the upper eyelid; tympanum distinct, about two thirds the size of the eye. The……..
They produces large numbers of eggs in ponds, paddy fields and temporary pools of rain water, but there are high mortality rates among tadpoles, frog lets and adult frogs.

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Click here to view State wise list of Indian state animals (symbols) – updated

Distinctive Identification

Rana tigrina is a schedule – IV frog, according to wildlife (Protection) act, 1972 and classified as Least Concern (LC) by the IUCN.

Rana tigrina is a beautiful frog. It is the largest frog in India. Size of Rana tigrina is between 5 to 17 cm. The weight of mature Rana tigrina is between 25 to 500 g.

They are found in various colors ranging from yellow to olive green or gray, with dark irregular markings. Generally the body color is yellow, with green appearance on sides. Skin of back with longitudinal folds, a strong fold above the tympanum.

Young frogs have more greenish or grayish in their overall coloration. Breeding males turn in bright lemon yellow color.

They has a fine yellow or dirty white line along upper surface of thigh, another on the inner side of calf. Ventrum white, sometimes feeble pigmentation on throat.

A white broad band runs along the side separating the dark color pattern of the back from the plain white belly.

They have a long and pointed snout and long, muscular hind limbs. They have moderate head. Their toes are nearly entirely webbed. The eardrum is large.

Nostril a little nearer to the end of the mouth than to the eye; inter-orbital space narrower than the upper eyelid; tympanum distinct, about two thirds the size of the eye. The color of eyes is darkish brown or black.

Fingers rather short, first extending beyond second; toes moderate, obtuse, nearly entirely webbed. They have a much developed membranaceous fringe along the fifth toe.

Extensively webbed toes, though not fully. Proportionately smaller digging appendage on the inner aspect of the sole. Hands without webbing, feet more or less fully webbed.

Male have two lateral vocal sacs, conspicuous externally by folds of the skin on the sides of the throat. The color of sacs is bright blue or black.

Females are larger than males but males are darker in color and also have breeding pads on the first finger.

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Classification

Common Name – Rana tigrina

Local Name – Barsati mendak

Other Name – Indian bullfrog / Tiger frog

Zoological Name – Hoplobatrachus tigerinus

Kingdom – Animalia

Phylum – Chordata

Class – Amphibia

Order – Anura

Family – Dicroglossidae

Genus – Hoplobatrachus

Conservational Status – Schedule – IV, according to wildlife (Protection) act, 1972 and classified as Least Concern (LC) by the IUCN.

Distribution

They found in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Myanmar, Afghanistan, and Sri Lanka. They also found in Maldives and Madagascar.

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Habit and habitat

They prefer freshwater wetlands and aquatic habitats. Generally they avoid coastal and forest areas.

Rana tigrina is mostly solitary and nocturnal in nature. They inhabiting holes and bushes near permanent water sources. The frog does not stay in water for a long time; it spends most of its time hiding and feeding in surrounding vegetation.

They feed on various type of insects, invertebrates, mice, shrew, young frogs, earthworms, roundworms, juvenile snakes, and small birds.

Breeding in monsoon, soon after the first rain, when adults congregate at ephemeral rainwater pools.

The breeding males are lemon yellow in color, hence locally called “Basanti Dadoo”, while females remain dull and drab-colored. The call is a powerful nasal “Cronk, cronk, cronk”, which sometimes sounds like “oong wang, oong wang, oong wang” repeated several times.

Calling males sit close to each other in shallow water, now and then jumping over each other. Females lurch around. One falling within the range of a male is grabbed by the male in an amplectic hold, with neighbors soon jumping on the pair and trying to dislodge them which starts much fighting, pushing, and tugging.

Click here to view State wise list of Indian state birds (symbols) – updated

They produces large numbers of eggs in ponds, paddy fields and temporary pools of rain water, but there are high mortality rates among tadpoles, frog lets and adult frogs.

Tadpoles are feeds at bottom. The length of the tadpole 40-43 mm, tail 23-26 mm. They are black or brown in color on back, flat belly with tapering long tail.

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