Jantar Mantar, Jantar Mantar Timings, Jantar Mantar Entry Ticket, Jantar Mantar Online Ticket Booking, History of Jantar Mantar, Jantar Mantar Guide, Jantar Mantar Tour, About Jantar Mantar, Interesting Facts about Jantar Mantar, How to Reach Jantar Mantar.
Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh (Jai Singh II), the legendry figure in construction is credited with setting-up of solar observatories at Jaipur & in four other cities of India, was born in 1688 A.D. and succeeded the throne of Amber at the age of eleven Years in 1699 A.D. During his reign the state was full of troubles, warfare and with political anarchy in Northern India.
Sawai Jai Singh was inclined towards astronomy from an early age and studied as a scholar should, works of Hindu, Muslim and European astronomers, particularly those of Plotemy, Ulugh Beg and La Hire. He also translated well known treatise on the subject in to Sanskrit and Persian and sent his staff across the sea to collect information on astronomy. Jai Singh professedly followed the Uzbek astronomer Ulugh Beg and brought up to date the latter’s celebrated Catalogue of Stars. He was helped in his endeavors by Samrat Jagannath and Pt. Kewal Ram. Sawai Jai Singh first built a large observatory with instruments of masonry in Delhi in 1724 A.D. after experimenting on the small instruments made in brass. In his view, such instruments could provide more exact and precise reading than smaller ones of brass. There after, he built observatories at Jaipur, Ujjain, Banaras (Varanasi) and Mathura.
The Jaipur observatory was completed in 1734 A.D. It is the biggest one among the five. It contains almost all of the Raja’s instruments with a greater degree of precision. The “Rashivalaya Yantra” (Zodiac Circle or Ecliptic Instrument) is found no where else except at Jantar Mantar, Jaipur. Sawai Jai Singh himself used to take astronomical readings in this observatory situated near his palace, now popularly known as “The City Palace”. The observatory was renovated in the time of Maharaja Madho Singh, in 1901 A.D. The renovation was carried out by Pt. Chandradhar Sharma Guleri, Pt. Gokul Chandra Bhavan and Lieutenant A.ff. Garrett. Stone and lime plastered marking plates were replaced with marble.
Sawai Jai Singh emerged as the patron of astronomy of his era in India. His works on rectification of the Calendar and prediction of eclipses were remarkable. He prepared in 1718 A.D. a set of astronomical tables, the “Zeech-i-Muhammad Shahi” which he dedicated to the then Mughal Emperor Mohammad Shah.
Jantar Mantar was built by:
In the early 18th century Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II of Jaipur constructed five Jantar Mantar in total in New Delhi, Jaipur, Ujjain, Mathura and Varanasi. They were completed between 1724 -1735. The Jantar Mantar observatory was constructed between 1728 -1734. It is the largest observatories among five and best preserved and still running. It is a collection of 19 architectural astronomical instruments. It features the world’s biggest stone sundial “Smarat Yantra”, and is UNESCO World heritage site. The one observatory in Mathura has almost disappeared today.
This observatory was built in 1734 for the study of space and time. The builder of the Jantar Mantar Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh was a brilliant star and great scholar of his subjects like astronomy and Indian politics. He is the ruler of Amber and founder of Jaipur, a great builder and ruler and exceptional astronomer. Sawai Jai Singh II was commissioned by Emperor Muhammad Shah, to make corrections in the astronomical tables and to confirm the data, already available on the planetary positions.
The main aims of Jai Singh II scientific program were to refine the ancient Islamic zij tables, to measure the exact hour at continuously and to define the calendar precisely. Another aim was to apply the cosmological vision deriving from the Ptolemaic one based upon astronomical facts to astrological prediction both social and individual. Sawai Jai Singh is aware of Hindu tradition of astronomical data and he also studies all the astronomy related books and data of Europeans, Islamic and Persian civilization and collects all the data and adopts the data. That helps him for building observatory. For collecting data Sawai Jai Singh II sent his envoys to various parts of world. The emissaries came back with manuals and astronomical tables besides tones of data on the advances made in the fields of astronomy. La Hires’s tables was one of these manuals. The Jantar mantar is also called the renewal edition of the observatory of the king Ulugh Beg ruler of Samarkand 1339-1449 at Uzbekistan. But it was more accurate compare to Ulugh Beg observatory. Where Ulugh beg observatory is called as “mistake of its time”. The first prime minister of India Pundit Jawaharlal Nehru wrote “not a mistake of its time”.
It took seven years to finish the task. He built the first stone observatory in 1724 in Delhi. The Jaipur observatory of Rajasthan was built in 1728-1734. The king Sawai Jai Singh built three more observatories in various places. The Jaipur observatory is the largest and more accurate than others.
Jantar mantar is the most complete and best preserved great observatory site built in the Ptolemaic tradition. It provides an outstanding testimony of the scientific and technical conceptions of the great observatory devised in the medieval world.
The Jantar Mantar, the observatory in Jaipur is located near the gate of the illustrious City Palace of Jaipur in Rajasthan.
Historic Significance of Jantar Mantar
The Jantar Mantar was constructed by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II who from a very young age was fascinated by the movement of the celestial objects.
The instruments at the Jaipur Jantar Mantar are made of stone and are very large structures. To ensure accuracy the structures were first made out of wood and the measurements were adjusted. Once the dimensions were perfected the construction was replicated in stone to give us the magnificent Jantar Mantar.
Most Significant Aspect of Jantar Mantar
The light and sound show at the Jantar Mantar is definitely worth your time. It explains the history behind the city of Jaipur and why the Jantar Mantar was constructed. The vivid colors and creative narration will really make you appreciate the beauty of this scientific instrument. It is best to couple this visit with the city palace and Jantar Mantar. The observatory is closed for about an hour in light of preparation for the light and sound show. You can take a walk through the market and shop while you wait for the show timings.
Following 16 instruments were built in this Jaipur observatory and they all are in good and working condition for exact calculation of planets and stars:-
1. Laghu Samrat Yantra
2. Dhruva Darshak Pattika
3. Nadi Valaya Yantra
4. Palbha Yantra
5. Kranti Vritta Yantra
6. Yantra Raj Yantra
7. Unnantansh Yantra
8. DakshiNottar Bhatti Yantra
9. Vrihat Samrat Yantra
10. Shasthansh Yantra
11. Rashi Valaya Yantra
12. Jai Prakash Yantra
13. Chakra Yantra
14. Kapali Yantra
15. Ram Yantra
16. Digansh Yantra
Availability of Guides
Local guides Fee – About Rs. 200
Timings and Entry Ticket
Entrance Fee: INR 200 for Foreign Tourists and INR 50 for Indians
The entry cost for Indian students is INR 15/person and that of International students is INR 100/person. Students get this discount on showing valid ID proof.
Visiting Time: All days 9:00 AM – 5:00 PM
Generally, one can see the whole of Jantar Mantar in 30 to 45 minutes of time.
Best Time to Visit
Visiting the Jantar Mantar during mid-day is most advisable. The sun will be right above your head and hence you will be able to understand how the readings are taken for each instrument.
The best time visit Jaipur is in between October and March. If you plan your trip in the other months, you will either experience unbearable heat as the temperature rises to 45 degree celsius and even more, or you will come across the rains. Therefore, if you want to experience not only the attractions of Jaipur and also the great pleasant weather, then book your tickets in any month between October and March.
How to Reach
If you do not have much time and wind up the trip at the earliest, try taking flights. In fact, the Jaipur airport experienced frequent flight services that are most of the times on time. There are buses and cabs in the airport, so you will not find it difficult to reach the attractions from the airport.
If you think you have a little more time to spend travelling, you can go for either train or bus. Both of these services are frequent and top-notch. In fact, some of the attractions in the city are in close proximity to the railway stations. There are numerous buses that run to and from Jaipur. So, it much depends upon you which option you would be comfortable with.
- Jantar Mantar is one of the five astronomical complexes constructed by Maharaja Jai Singh II, and the one in Jaipur is the largest and most well preserved.
- The advanced instruments in Jantar Mantar were useful in predicting eclipses, location of stars and the exact orbiting movements of the earth around the sun.
- The Samrat Yantra aka the Giant Sundial, is the centrepiece of the complex, known as the world’s tallest sundial with a height of 27 metres and a 6cm per minute speed of shadow movement.
- The name ‘Jantar Mantar’ is derived from the Hindi words yantra meaning instrument and mandir meaning temple. During the British rule in India, the names were mistranslated which morphed into Jantar Mantar and have gained popularity that way since.
- The instruments were so designed for Pandit Jagannath, the advisor and guru of Maharaja Jai Singh II, to help him create birth charts and predictions of major events like deaths, wars, weddings etc.
- Similar observatories called Jantar Mantar were created by Maharaja Jai Singh II in four other places like Delhi, Ujjain, Varanasi and Mathura, with the largest being in Jaipur.
- The instruments were built through inspiration taken from the Islamic school of astronomy, which was known to be the most advanced method of that time.
- Jantar Mantar as an observatory was built as an example of the Ptolemaic positional astronomy, which was common with many other civilizations.
- The three major celestial coordinate systems are represented in the instruments, them being: the horizon-zenith local system, the equatorial system and the ecliptic system.