House sparrow (Passer domesticus) complete detail – updated. Description of House sparrow (Passer domesticus) Goraya. Classification and Habit and habitat of House sparrow (Passer domesticus). Distribution of House sparrow (Passer domesticus).
Habit and habitat of House sparrow. Both sexes are grayish brown with black streaks on back and tail. Wings are brown, with white bars. House Sparrow is a social (gregarious) bird.
Average lifespan of House Sparrow is between 10 to 14 years. Nesting and breeding season varies according to climate and usually extends from March to September or throughout the year.
Nest is placed in a hole in wall or ceiling, niche, gargoyle, inverted lamp shade, and in every conceivable situation within or on the outside of a tenanted building. Generally nest is located in buildings, such as roof voids and crevices in walls, but may be placed under bridges, in thick bushes or in tree hollows……….
Size between 14 cm to 18 cm. The weight of adult is between 24 g to 40 g. Both sexes are grayish brown with black streaks on back and tail. Wings are brown, with white bars. Underparts are pale grey or white.
They have narrow white stripe over the eyes with black throat and breast. Plumage of the house sparrow is mostly different shades of grey and brown.
Both sexes are easily distinguishable, by coloration.
Male are brightly colored birds with gray heads, white cheeks, a black bib, and rufous neck. Male has black face and throat, and dark black and brown upper parts.
Male has a dark grey crown from the top of its bill to its back, and chestnut brown flanking its crown on the sides of its head. They has a small white stripe between the lores and crown and small white spots immediately behind the eyes, with black patches below and above them.
Females are slightly paler than the male and lacks the grey crown and black face, instead having a pale buff eye stripe. Female have earthy-brown streaked with black and rufous above, whitish below.
Bill is stout and conical, length between 1.0 cm to 1.5 cm. The bill also changes from brown to black. Tail is short.
Males in breeding plumage have a gray crown, chestnut nape and black throat patch, are brown on the back with a gray breast.
Young House Sparrows are similar to the adult female, but deeper brown below and paler above, with paler and less defined supercilia. Juveniles have broader buff feather edges, and tend to have looser, scruffier plumage.
Common Name – House sparrow
Local Lame – Goraya
Zoological Name – Passer domesticus
Kingdom – Animalia
Phylum – Chordata
Class – Aves
Order – Passeriformes
Family – Passeridae
Genus – Passer
Conservational Status – Schedule – IV, according to wildlife (Protection) act, 1972 and classified as Least Concern (LC) by the IUCN.
House Sparrows are distributed almost worldwide. They are native to the Palearctic and Ethiopian regions and have been introduced to the Nearctic, Neotropical, and Australian regions.
They found throughout the Indian Empire excepting Andaman, Nicobar and extreme South Tenasserim. Ordinarily up to about 7,000 feet in the Himalayas.
Habit and habitat
They are closely associated with human habitation and cultivation and like areas that have been modified by humans, including farms, residential, and urban areas.
Though found in widely varied habitats and climates but they are absent from uninhabited woodlands, deserts, forests, and grasslands.
House Sparrow is a social (gregarious) bird. They are usually seen in small to medium-sized groups, but may occur in huge numbers.
Their food consists mostly of grains and seeds, they also feed on insects and flower buds.
Flight more direct, often higher, than native sparrows. Look for them flying in and out of nest holes hidden behind shop signs or in traffic lights, or hanging around parking lots waiting for crumbs and picking insects off car grills.
Breeding males have, besides, a loud monotonous, and still more aggravating ‘ song ‘ Tsi, tsi, tsi or cheer, cheer, cheer, &c, uttered, sometimes for fully 10 minutes on end, as the bird fluffs out its plumage, arches its rump, droops its wings and struts about arrogantly, twitching its slightly cocked tail.
Nesting and breeding season varies according to climate and usually extends from March to September or throughout the year.
Nest is placed in a hole in wall or ceiling, niche, gargoyle, inverted lamp shade, and in every conceivable situation within or on the outside of a tenanted building.
Generally nest is located in buildings, such as roof voids and crevices in walls, but may be placed under bridges, in thick bushes or in tree hollows. Nests are built from dried vegetation, feathers, strings, and paper.
Eggs 3 to 7, whitish or pale greenish white, marked with various shades of brown. Both sexes build the nest and care for the young, though the female alone incubates the eggs. The incubation period is between 13 to 15 days. After the eggs are hatched, both males and females feed the young through regurgitation.
Average lifespan of House Sparrow is between 10 to 14 years.