Camel – Camelus dromedarius – Oont complete detail. Description of Camel – Camelus dromedarius – Oont. Habit and habitat of Camel. Distribution of Camel. Camel has a long- curved neck, deep-narrow chest, one tail and a hump.
The hump is composed of fat bound together by fibrous tissue, acting as food storage in times of need. Height of camel is between 6 feet to 9 feet. Weight between 600 kg to 900 kg. Camels are herbivorous.
They inhabit arid regions. Mating season occurs in winters, but peaks in the rainy season. During the reproductive season, males become very aggressive, sometimes snapping each other and wrestling, while defending the females with them.
At the time of mating male and female camel pushing each other with their whole body or lowered head and neck; snapping at each other without biting. The male smells the female’s genitals, and often bites her in this region or around her hump. The………
Height of camel is between 6 feet to 9 feet. Weight between 600 kg to 900kg. Color lite cream, dark cream, lite brown, dark brown, light black and almost all shades of brown.
Camel has a long- curved neck, deep-narrow chest, one tail and a hump. The hump is composed of fat bound together by fibrous tissue, acting as food storage in times of need.
Ears are small with acute hearing. Camel’s ears are lined with fur to filter out sand and dust blowing into the ear canal.
Eyes are large, with a soft, doe-like expression and protected by a double row of long curly eyelashes that also help keep out sand and dust, while thick bushy eyebrows shield the eyes from the desert sun.
Legs are four with broad, flat, leathery pads with two toes on each foot. When the camel places its foot on the ground the pads spread, preventing the foot from sinking into the sand.
Camel moult in spring and have grown a new coat by autumn. Thick callus-like bare spots of dry skin appear on a camel’s chest and knee joints when the animal reaches five months of age. These leathery patches help support the animal’s body weight when kneeling, resting and rising.
The camel has a large mouth, with 34 sharp teeth. They enable the animal to eat rough thorny bushes without damaging the lining of its mouth, and can be used as biting weapons against predators if need be.
A camel gulps down its food without chewing it first, later regurgitating the undigested food and chewing it in cud form. When a camel twitches its nose, it is cooling the incoming air and condensing moisture from its outgoing breath.
Common Name – Camel
Local Name – Oont
Zoological Name – Camelus dromedarius
Kingdom – Animalia
Phylum – Chordata
Class – Mammalia
Order – Artiodactvla
Family – Camelidae
Genus – Camelus
Conservational Status – Schedule – V, according to wildlife (Protection) act, 1972.
Camels occupy arid regions of the Middle East through northern India, thar desert, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and arid regions in Africa, most notably, the Sahara Desert.
Habit and habitat
Camels inhabit arid regions of the Middle East through northern India and arid regions in Africa, most notably, the Sahara Desert and western to central Asia.
Camels are herbivorous and they eat thorny plants, saltbush, fodder, foliage, dry grasses, and available desert vegetation. A camel can go 5-7 days with little or no food and water, and can lose a quarter of its body weight without impairing its normal functions. When water is available camels drink well – up to 65 liters at a time. Camels usually form groups of 2 to 20 individuals.
One male and one to several females, sub-adults and young. The male is the dominant member of the group. They use their lips to grasp the food, and then chew each bite 40-50 times.
Features like long eyelashes, eyebrows, lockable nostrils, caudal opening of the prepuce and a relatively small vulva help the camel avoid injuries, especially while feeding. Camel has 22 milk teeth, which are eventually replaced by 34 permanent teeth. Camels prefer desert conditions characterized by a long dry season and a short rainy season. They can adapt their body temperature from 34°C to 41.7°C, to conserve water.
Camel milk is a staple food of desert nomad tribes. The quantities of sodium, potassium, zinc, iron, copper, manganese and vitamin C were relatively higher than the amounts in cow’s milk. The heart is 5 kg in weight, and has two ventricles with the apex curving to the left. Its pulse rate is 50 beats per minute.
They have sharp eyesight and a good sense of smell. The lenses of their eyes contain crystalline, which constitutes 8-13% of the total protein present there. Bushy eyebrows, a double row of eyelashes, and the ability to close their nostrils assist in water conservation and prevent sand and dust from entering, even in a sandstorm.
The hair is longer at the throat, hump and shoulders. The pads widen under its weight when it steps on the ground. The hump, which can be 15-30 cm tall, is made up of fat bound together by fibrous tissue.
Age of sexual maturity is 6 years for male camel and 3 years female camel. Female camels give birth to young once every two years. When mating season begins, males will use their tails to spread urine across the back and lower ends of their bodies.
Mating season occurs in winters, but peaks in the rainy season. During the reproductive season, males become very aggressive, sometimes snapping each other and wrestling, while defending the females with them. At the time of mating male and female camel pushing each other with their whole body or lowered head and neck; snapping at each other without biting.
The male smells the female’s genitals, and often bites her in this region or around her hump. The male makes the female sit, and then grasps her with his forelegs. Normally, three to four ejaculations occur. Copulation time ranges from 6–38 minutes, averaging 10–15 minutes. The average life of camel is 30-40 years.