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Definition of Wildlife Sanctuary According to wildlife protection act 1972

Wildlife Sanctuary (Sanctuaries) complete detail. Definition of Wildlife Sanctuary According to wildlife protection act 1972. what is wildlife (Sanctuaries) Sanctuary. Definition of wildlife Sanctuary. 
Boundaries of sanctuaries are not well defined and controlled biotic interference is permitted. “Sanctuary” means an area declared, whether under sec. [26(A)5] or sec 38, or deemed, under sub section (3) of Sec.66 to be declared, as a wildlife sanctuary.
A sanctuary is a protected area which is reserved for the conservation of only animal and human activities like harvesting of timber, collecting minor forest products and private ownership rights are allowed as long as they do not interfere with well-being of animals.

Introduction & Definition

Sanctuary is an area which is of adequate ecological, faunal, floral, Geo-morphological, natural or zoological significance. The Sanctuary is declared for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment. Certain rights of people living inside the Sanctuary could be permitted. Further, during the settlement of claims, before finally notifying the Sanctuary, the Collector may, in consultation with the Chief Wildlife Warden, allow the continuation of any right of any person in or over any land within the limits of the Sanctuary.

A sanctuary is a protected area which is reserved for the conservation of only animal and human activities like harvesting of timber, collecting minor forest products and private ownership rights are allowed as long as they do not interfere with well-being of animals. Boundaries of sanctuaries are not well defined and controlled biotic interference is permitted.

State wise list of Wildlife Sanctuaries of India – updated 

“Sanctuary” means an area declared, whether under sec. [26(A)5] or sec 38, or deemed, under sub section (3) of Sec.66 to be declared, as a wildlife sanctuary;

Sanctuaries (According to wildlife protection act 1972)

Declaration of Sanctuary

[(l) The State Government may, by notification, declare its intention to constitute any area other than area comprised with any reserve forest or the territorial waters as a sanctuary if it considers that such area is of adequate ecological, faunal, floral, geomorphological, natural. or zoological significance, for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment. 2]

(2) The notification referred to in sub-section (1) shall specify, as nearly as possible, the situation and limits of such area.

Explanation. – For the purposes of the this section, it shall be sufficient to describe the area by roads, rivers, ridges, or other well-known or readily intelligible boundaries

Collector to determine rights.– [3When a notification has been issued under Sec.18,] the collector shall inquire into, and determine the existence, nature and extent of the rights of any person in or over the land comprised within the limits of the sanctuary.

 Bar of accrual of rights.– After the issue of a notification under Sec.”18, no right shall be acquired in, or over the land comprised within the limits of the area specified in such notification, except by succession, testamentary or intestate.

 Proclamation by Collector. – When a notification has been issued under Sec.18 the Collector shall publish in the regional language in every town and village in or in the neighborhood of the area comprised therein, a programation:

  • specifying, as nearly as possible, the situation and the limits of the sanctuary; and
  • requiring any person, claiming any right mentioned in Sec. 19, to prefer before the collector” within two months from the date of such proclamation, a written claim in the prescribed form specifying the nature and extent of such right, with necessary details and the amount and particulars of the compensation, if any, claimed in respect thereof.

Inquiry by Collector. – The Collector shall, after service of the prescribed notice upon the claimant, expeditiously inquire into

  • the claim preferred before him under Cl. (b) of Sec.21, and
  • the existence of any right mentioned in Sec.19 and not claimed under Cl.(b) of Sec.21,

so far as the same may be ascertainable from the records of the State Governments and the evidence of any person acquainted with the same.

Powers of Collector. – For the purpose of such inquiry, the Collector may exercise the following powers, namely

  • the power to enter in or upon any land and to survey, demarcate, and make a map of the same or to authorize any other officer to do so;
  • the same powers as are vested in a civil court for the trial of suits.

Acquisition of rights. – (1) In the case of a claim to a right in or over any land referred to in Sec.19, the Collector shall pass an order admitting or rejecting the same in whole or in part.

  • If such claim is admitted in whole or in part, the Collector may either
  • exclude such land from the limits of the proposed sanctuary, or
  • proceed to acquire such land or rights, except where by an agreement between the owner of such land or the holder of rights and the Government the owner or holder of such rights has agreed to surrender his rights to the Government, in or over such land, and payment of such compensation, as is provided in the Land Acquisition Act, 1894 (1 of 1894)

[4(c) allow, in consultation with the Chief Wildlife Warden, the continuance of any right of any person in, or over any land within the limits of the sanctuary.]

Acquisitions proceedings. – (1) For the purpose of acquiring such land, or rights in or over such land,

  • the Collector shall be deemed to be a Collector, proceeding under the Land Acquisition Act, 1894 (1 to 1894):
  • the claimant shall be deemed to be a person interested and appearing before him in pursuance of a notice given under sec.9 of that Act.
  • the provisions of the sections preceding Sec.9 of that Act shall be deemed to have been complied with;
  • where the claimant does not accept the award made in his favor in the matter of compensation, he shall be deemed, within the meaning of Sec.18 of that Act, to be a person interested who has not accepted the award, and shall be entitled to proceed to claim relief, against the award under the provision of Part III of that Act;
  • the Collector, with the consent of the claimant, or the Court, with the consent of both the parties, may award compensation in land or money or partly in land and partly in money, and
  • in the case of the stoppage of a public way or a common pasture, the Collector may, with the previous sanction of the State Government provide for an alternative public way or common pasture, as far as may be practicable or convenient.

(2) The acquisition under this Act of any land or interest therein shall be deemed to be acquisition for a public purpose.

Delegation of Collector’s powers. – The State Government may, by general or special order, direct that the powers exercisable or the functions to be performed by the Collector under Sec. 19 to 25 (both inclusive) may be ‘exercised and performed by such other officer as may be specified in the order.

Declaration of area as Sanctuary. –(1) When –

  • a notification has been issued under sec.18 and the period for preferring claim has elapsed, and all claims, if any, made in relation to any land in an area intended to be declared as a sanctuary, have been disposed of by the State Government; or
  • any area comprised within any reserve forest or any part of the territorial waters, which is considered by the State Government to be of adequate ecological, faunal, geomorphological, natural or zoological significance for the purpose of protecting, propagating or developing wildlife or its environment, is to be included in a sanctuary,

the State Government shall issue a notification specifying the limits of the area which shall be comprised within the sanctuary and declare that the said area shall be sanctuary on and from such date as may be specified in the notification.

Provided that where any part of the territorial waters is to be so included, prior concurrence of the Central Government shall be obtained by the State Government.

Provided further that the limits of the area of the territorial waters to be included in the sanctuary shall be determined in consultation with the Chief Naval Hydrographer of the Central Government and after taking adequate measures to protect the occupational interests of the local fishermen.

  • Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (1), the right of innocent passage of any vessel or boat through the territorial water shall not be affected by the notification issued under sub-section (1).
  • No alteration of the boundaries of a sanctuary shall be made except on a resolution passed by the Legislation of the State.]

Restriction on entry in sanctuary. – (1) No person other than,

  • a public servant on duty;
  • a person who has been permitted by the Chief Wildlife Warden or the authorized officer to reside within the limits of the sanctuary;
  • a person who has any right over immovable property within the limits of the sanctuary;
  • a person passing through the sanctuary along a public highway, and
  • the dependents of the person referred to in CI. (a), (b) or (c).

Shall enter or reside in the sanctuary, except under and in accordance with the conditions of a permit granted under section 28.

(2) Every person shall, so long as he resides in the sanctuary, be bound

  • to prevent the commission, in the sanctuary, or an offence against this Act;
  • where there is reason to believe that any such offence against this Act has been committed in such sanctuary, to help in discovering and arresting the offender;
  • to report the death of any wild animal and to safeguard its remains until the Chief Wildlife Warden or the authorized officer takes charge thereof;
  • to extinguish any fire in such sanctuary of which he has knowledge or information and to prevent from spreading by any lawful means in his power , any fire within the vicinity of such sanctuary of which he has knowledge or information; and
  • to assist any forest officer, Chief Wildlife Warden, Wildlife Warden or police officer demanding his aid for preventing the commission of any offence against this Act or in the investigation of any such offence.

[6(3) No person shall, with intent to cause damage to any boundary-mark of a sanctuary or to cause any wrongful gain as defined in the Indian Penal Code (45 of 1860), alter, destroy, move, or deface such boundary-mark.]

[7(4) No person shall tease or molest any wild animal or litter the grounds or sanctuary.]

Grant of permit. – (1) The Chief Wildlife Warden may, on application, grant to any person a permit to enter or reside in a sanctuary for all or any of the following purposes, namely:

  • investigation or study of wildlife and purposes ancillary or incidental thereto;
  • photography;
  • scientific research;
  • tourism;
  • Transaction of lawful business with any person residing in the sanctuary.

(2) A permit to enter or reside in a sanctuary shall be issued subject to such conditions and on payment of such fee as may be prescribed.

Click here to view State wise list of Indian National Parks – updated

Destruction, etc., in a sanctuary prohibited without a permit. – No person shall destroy, exploit or remove any wildlife from a sanctuary or destroy or damage the habitat of any wild animal or deprive any wild animal or its habitat within such sanctuary except under and in accordance with a permit granted by the Chief Wildlife Warden and no such permit shall be granted unless the State Government being satisfied that such destruction, exploitation or removal of wildlife from the sanctuary is necessary for the improvement and better management of wildlife therein authorizes the issue of such permit.

Explanation: For the purposes of this section, grazing or movement of livestock permitted under clause (d) of Sec.33 shall not be deemed to be an act prohibited under this section.]

Causing fire prohibited. – No person shall set fire to a sanctuary, or kindle any fire, or leave any fire burning, in a sanctuary, in such manner as to endanger such sanctuary.

Prohibition of entry into sanctuary with weapon. – No person shall enter a sanctuary with any weapon except with the previous permission in writing of the Chief Wildlife Warden or the authorized officer.

Ban on use of injurious substances. – No person shall use in a sanctuary, chemicals, explosives or any other substances which may cause injury to, or endanger, any wildlife in such sanctuary.

 Control of sanctuaries. – The Chief Wildlife Warden shall be the authority who shall control, manage and maintain all sanctuaries and for that purpose, within the limits of any sanctuary,

  • may construct such roads, bridges, buildings, fences or barrier gates, and carry out such other works as he may consider necessary for the purposes of such sanctuary;
  • shall take such steps as will ensure the security of wild animals in the sanctuary and the preservation of the sanctuary and wild animals, therein;
  • may take such measures, in the interests of wildlife, as he may consider necessary for the improvement of any habitat.
  • may regulate, control or prohibit, in keeping with the interests of wildlife, the grazing or movement of [livestock].

Immunization of livestock. –(41) The Chief Wildlife Warden shall take such measures in such manner as may be prescribed, for immunization against communicable diseases of the livestock kept in or within five kilometers of a sanctuary.

(2) No person shall take, or cause to be taken or graze, any livestock in a sanctuary without getting it immunized.]

Registration of certain persons in possession of arms. – (41) Within three months from the declaration of any area as a sanctuary, every person residing in or within ten kilometers of any such sanctuary and holding a licence granted under the Arms Act, 1959 (54 of 1959), for the possession of arms or exempted from the provisions of that Act and possessing arms, shall apply in such form, on payment of such fee, and within such time as may be prescribed, to the Chief Wildlife Warden or the authorized officer, for the registration of his name.

(2) On receipt of an application under sub-section (1), the Chief Wildlife Warden or the authorized officer shall register the name of the applicant in subject manner as may be prescribed.

[103) No new licenses under the Arms Act, 1959 (54 of 1959), shall be granted within a radius of ten kilometers of a sanctuary without the prior concurrence of the Chief Wildlife Warden.

Sanctuaries declared by Central Government

(Power of Central Government to declare areas as Sanctuaries)

 (1) Where the State Government leases or otherwise transfers any area under its control, not being an area within a Sanctuary, to the Central Government the Central Government may, if it is satisfied that the conditions specified in sec.18 are fulfilled in relation to the area so transferred to it, declare such area, by notification, to be a sanctuary and the provisions of [sec 18 to 35 (both inclusive) 16], 54 and 55 shall apply in relation to such sanctuary as they apply in relation to a sanctuary declared by the State Government.

  • The Central Government may, if it is satisfied that the conditions specified in sec.35 are fulfilled in relation to any area referred to in sub-section (1), whether or not such area has been declared, to be a sanctuary by the Central Government, or the State Government, declare such area, by notification, to be a National Park and the provisions of secs.35. 54 and 55 shall apply to such National Park as they apply in relation to a National Park declared by the State Government.
  • In relation to a sanctuary or National Park declared by the Central Government, the powers and duties of the Chief Wildlife Warden under the section referred to in sub-section (1) and (2). shall be exercised and discharged by the Director or by such other officer as may be authorized by the Director in this behalf and references in the sections aforesaid to the State Government, shall be construed as reference to the Central Government and reference therein to the Legislation of the State shall be construed as a reference to Parliament.

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