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Black francolin (Francolinus francolinus) complete detail

Black francolin (Francolinus francolinus) complete detail – updated. Description of Black francolin (Francolinus francolinus). Classification of Black francolin (Francolinus francolinus). Habit and habitat of Black francolin (Francolinus francolinus). They found in scrubby habitats, with plenty of cultivated crops tall enough to offer shelter and open beneath to provide escape routes and easy travel.
Size of adult Black francolin is between 33 to 36 cm. The weight of adult is between 400 to 490 g. These birds are secretive, shy and suspicious of humans. The bill is short and strong, and black in color. The eyes are dark brown or black. Legs and feet are reddish-brown, with short spur on the rear leg. They have black head with white patches and have unique pattern of brown color crown. The neck shows complete chestnut collar. They have a white patch on the cheek. Upper tail coverts and tail are black narrowly barred white. Under parts, throat and breast are black. Belly and under tail-coverts are chestnut…………
Nesting and breeding season is between March to September. The Black Francolin nests on the ground. The nest is a grass-lined shallow depression in the ground, usually well concealed in vegetation.

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Click here to view State wise list of Indian state birds (symbols) – updated

Distinctive Identification

Black francolin is a Schedule – IV bird, according to wildlife (Protection) act, 1972 and classified as Least Concern (LC) by the IUCN.

Size of adult Black francolin is between 33 to 36 cm. The weight of adult is between 400 to 490 g. They have a wingspan of 50 to 56 cm.

Adult male has buffy-brown upper parts with bright brown, black and white patches. The back and wings are mottled shades of golden brown with sub terminal tawny-buff bands and pale edges.

The bill is short and strong, and black in color. The eyes are dark brown or black. Legs and feet are reddish-brown, with short spur on the rear leg.

They have black head with white patches and have unique pattern of brown color crown. The neck shows complete chestnut collar. They have a white patch on the cheek.

Upper tail coverts and tail are black narrowly barred white. Under parts, throat and breast are black. Belly and under tail-coverts are chestnut.

Female is mainly brown, but has a chestnut hind neck. Females has the upper plumage, wings and tail as in the male but the black is replaced by mottled brown and the brown bars on the lower back and tail are wider.

The white cheek patch is missing and the chestnut collar replaced by a nuchal patch. Upper parts are dark brown with pale-edged feathers. Rump and upper tail-coverts and are dark brown, finely barred creamy-white.

On the head, crown and nape are brown finely streaked blackish. Face and broad eyebrow are buffy-white. The chin is creamy-white.

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Classification

Common Name – Black francolin

Local Lame – Kala titer / Karo tittar

Zoological Name – Francolinus francolinus

Kingdom – Animalia

Phylum – Chordata

Class – Aves

Order – Galliformes

Family – Phasianidae

Sub-family – Perdicinae

Genus – Francolinus

Conservational Status – Schedule – IV (Least Concern (LC) According to IUCN Red List)

Distribution

Black francolin is found in India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Java, Afghanistan, Sumatra and Maldives. There are some fragmented populations in the western parts of the range.

The southern edge of its range extends eastwards from Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, and Orissa to Assam. In north it is seldom found above an altitude of 2700 m.

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Habit and habitat

They found in scrubby habitats, with plenty of cultivated crops tall enough to offer shelter and open beneath to provide escape routes and easy travel. They prefer the areas of thick vegetation, usually near water.

They inhabit several types of well-watered habitats such as brush land, wood edges, grassy areas, but also cultivations along canals and watercourses, and irrigated plantations. Bushes, swarm of various trees, Bamboo bushes, and open farms area the natural and favorite habitats.

These birds are secretive, shy and suspicious of humans. They generally found in small groups or in pairs. They forages on the ground or from low bushes and low tree branches.

They feed on grain, grass seeds, fallen berries, shoots, tubers, termites, ants and insects.

They prefers to run rather than to fly, when disturbed. The flight pattern of black francolin is short, direct flight punctuated by glides with rounded wings, rounded tail narrow black and white bars.

The call of the Black Francolin, described as a loud ringing klik cheek-cheek-cheerakik, or “kik-kik-kik”.

Nesting and breeding season is between March to September. The Black Francolin nests on the ground. The nest is a grass-lined shallow depression in the ground, usually well concealed in vegetation.

Click here to view State wise list of Indian state animals (symbols) – updated

Eggs 6 to 12, white spotted olive in color. Incubation period is between 18 to 20 days. Eggs are incubated by both parents but mostly by female. Both parents rear them after hatching, and the young remain in the family group for some months.

The average lifespan of Black francolin is between 13 to 16 years.

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