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Asian water buffalo (Bubalis arnee) complete detail – updated

Asian water buffalo (Bubalis arnee) complete detail – updated. Description of Asian water buffalo (Bubalis arnee). Classification of Asian water buffalo (Bubalis arnee). Habit and habitat of Asian water buffalo. Water buffalo are found in grasslands, alluvial plains, and marshes, although they may use woodlands for shelter. 
The tall jungles and reed brakes in the neighborhood of swamps provide the ideal habitat, offering them both food and shelter, pools of water to live in, and mud wallows in which to roll and cake themselves with earth. The skin color is slate-gray to black or grayish black, generally darker on the head and lighter on the body. The skull is relatively light, long and narrow, and has a nearly straight profile. Wild water buffalos are massive and barrel-chested, with rather short and strong legs. Males are larger than females………….
Weight of adult Asian water buffalo is between 600 kg to 1200 kg. Size between 240 cm to 300 cm. and the length of tail is between 60 cm to 100 cm. The species is typically found near water bodies such as open rivers, swamps and seasonal lakes, often spending much of the day wallowing in muddy water. They are tuft on the forehead. The face is long and narrow, with rather small ears and large horns. The ears are comparatively small with lightly haired………..
Breeding takes place year-round, but it is mainly between October to to December. The age of sexual maturity is between 18 to 30 months. Females typically produce one offspring every two years.

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Click here to view State wise list of Indian state animals (symbols) – updated

Distinctive Identification

Asian water buffalo is a Schedule – I animal, according to wildlife (Protection) act, 1972 and classified as Endangered (EN) by the IUCN.

Weight of adult Asian water buffalo is between 600 kg to 1200 kg. Size between 240 cm to 300 cm. and the length of tail is between 60 cm to 100 cm. They are about 150 cm to 200 cm high at the shoulder.

The skin color is slate-gray to black or grayish black, generally darker on the head and lighter on the body.

The skull is relatively light, long and narrow, and has a nearly straight profile. Wild water buffalos are massive and barrel-chested, with rather short and strong legs. Males are larger than females.

They are tuft on the forehead. The face is long and narrow, with rather small ears and large horns. The ears are comparatively small with lightly haired and tend to droop downwards. Eyes are black in color and protected by eyebrows.

They have incredible scimitar-shaped horns, which may exceed 80 to 120 cm in spread. Horns extend sideways from the skull and curve backwards. Tail reaches to the hocks and ends in a small tuft.

The moderately long, coarse and sparse hair is directed forward from the haunches to the long and narrow head.

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Classification

Common Name – Asian water buffalo / Wild water buffalo

Local Name – Arna

Zoological Name – Bubalis arnee 

Kingdom – Animalia

Phylum – Chordata

Class – Mammalia

Order – Artiodactyla

Family – Bovidae

Subfamily – Bovinae

Tribe – Bovini

Genus – Bubalus

Conservational Status – Schedule – I animal, according to wildlife (Protection) act, 1972 and classified as Endangered (EN) by the IUCN.

Distribution

Wild water buffalos occur in India, Nepal, Bhutan, Thailand, and Cambodia, with an unconfirmed population in Myanmar. They have been extirpated in Pakistan, Bangladesh, Laos, and Vietnam. Wild buffalo are now restricted to scattered populations in India, Nepal, Bhutan, and Myanmar. Populations in Thailand, Cambodia, and Sri Lanka are tentatively labeled as wild buffalo, but they may be semi-domesticated.

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Habit and habitat

Water buffalo are found in grasslands, alluvial plains, and marshes, although they may use woodlands for shelter. The tall jungles and reed brakes in the neighborhood of swamps provide the ideal habitat, offering them both food and shelter, pools of water to live in, and mud wallows in which to roll and cake themselves with earth.

The species is typically found near water bodies such as open rivers, swamps and seasonal lakes, often spending much of the day wallowing in muddy water.

They associate in small herds, which may combine to from large assemblages. Female live in groups of up to thirty individuals, along with young, and older cows typically lead these groups. If bulls are present, the dominant female will still lead the group. Young males leave this clan at the age of 3 to 4 years.

Young males often live in small bachelor groups (6-8 animals), while old males tend to be solitary. They have an alarm call which is a high pitched snort followed by a growling “moo”.

Wild water buffalo is an excellent swimmer. They can run at speeds of 35 to 55 km/hr for short periods of time.

They feed chiefly on a variety of grasses and sedges, grazing in the mornings and in the evenings and sometimes at night, lying up by day in high grass or dense patches of cover, or submerged in a marsh or pool. They may be active both day and night.

They are extremely protective of their young and females will form a protective line in front of the calves when threatened. If the threat persists, they flee into tall grass or forest and not into water.

Click here to view State wise list of Indian state birds (symbols) – updated

Breeding takes place year-round, but it is mainly between October to December. The age of sexual maturity is between 18 to 30 months. Females typically produce one offspring every two years.

The gestation period is between 10 to 11 months. At birth, the calves are buff-brown in color. Average lifespan of Wild water buffalo is 25 years.

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